README | Errorist Website Theme for Hugo


Recursively clone the bootstrapping project:

git clone --recurse-submodules

This pulls the Errorist theme as a git submodule and provides you with a skeleton project that needs only a few things to configure. Change into project directory and start the Hugo server:

cd errorist-bootstrap
hugo server -D

Open http://localhost:1313 in your browser. You should see a welcome message, and a link to the manuals. You will also notice that two languages – English and Russian – are already pre-configured. This is done for the sake of a contrasting multilingual example, just to show you the ropes. Languages can be easily added or removed.

Alternatively, you can clone Errorist into themes folder of your existing project. In this case you will need to merge configuration from themes/errorist/exampleSite into your existing project.

In addition to this README file, Errorist home page has a soft step-by-step tutorial as well as quick introduction to YAML and Markdown. These are also included in the bootstrapping project.

Quick Setup for the Impatient

  • Open data/authors.yaml, read the comments, and configure one or more authors by example. It’s YAML format, so keep an eye on indentation.

  • Open config/_default/languages.yaml, read the comments, and configure to your needs.

  • If you’ve added new languages, you will also need to add translation files, one per new language. Create i18n directory in your project root, copy the English translations file from themes/errorist/i18n/en.yaml to i18n directory you’ve just created, and use it as a template. That is, change the English translations to whatever you need. The name of this new file must be <LANG>.yaml, <LANG> being the two-character language code from the previous step.

  • If there were changes in supported languages, you will need to add/remove index*.md files in the archetypes accordingly. That is, for each file under archetypes directory in your project, you will need an index.<LANG>.md file for each language you support. To remove these files for Russian (if you are not going to use Russian), run

find archetypes -name '' -exec rm '{}' \;
  • If there were changes in supported languages, you will need to add/remove kontent/images/_index*.md files accordingly. By default the only language-specific part is the file name itself, so mere copying will do.

The content directory is preconfigured as kontent. This will save you quite a few keystrokes with tab-completion on command line (k<TAB> for kontent and c<TAB> for config). If you prefer the default content, edit config/_default/config.yaml accordingly.

Clean up Tutorials and Examples

# Re-create kontent/
rm kontent/
hugo new

# Remove test image bundle
rm -r kontent/images/plain-blue

# Remove the manual
rm -r kontent/manual

# Remove the Git remote (and maybe add yours later)
git remote remove origin

You are ready to create content and publish your website.

Before you do, though, have a brief look at how text content and images are handled by Errorist (the next two sections). Errorist will, of course, work with any other setup as far as the core functionality of Hugo is concerned, but it will also be limited to just that.

Adding Text Content

Errorist’s key features rely on a particular page bundle structure. Here’s an example with some bells and whistles:

├── homework
│   ├── 10_task.txt
│   ├── 20_mysolution.txt
│   ├── 30_solution.txt
│   └── 40_diff.txt
├── main-img

The English and Russian pages are in index* files – as in any Hugo page bundle.

The four .txt files under the homework sub-directory hold content for a block of clickable tabs, identified by the directory name (homework). Such tab can be included in a page using a shortcode {{<tabs_bq "homework">}}. Should files contain any Markdown, it will be rendered. For language-sensitive tabs, *.md files should be used instead. See the Shortcodes section for details.

The summary.*md files, when present, override the built-in .Summary page variable. This gives you the freedom to write your summaries any way you want. Note that a good summary isn’t necessarily a continuous fragment of a page.

The file main-img (the name is significant) contains a reference to a page bundle with the main image for the page with captions in all supported languages and the authors’ IDs. Switching the main image for a multilingual page is thus a matter of editing a single line in a single file.

All of the above offloads quite a lot of noise from your Markdown and makes your content better manageable.

As already mentioned, Errorist will work with other supported content setups as far as the basic functionality provided by Hugo is concerned.

Image Management with Image Bundles

An image bundle (a term specific to Errorist) is, in effect, a page bundle, stored under a particular content section, kontent/images by default. Its purpose, however, is turned inside out: the single image file it includes is the main thing here. The index.*md files contain associated texts for each supported language:

├── anyname.jpg

The name of the image file isn’t significant as long as Hugo recognizes its type as ‘image’. An image bundle is identified by its directory name, myimage in our example.

The only front matter parameter specific to image bundle is alt, which holds the same-named attribute for the <img> HTML tag. The caption for the image is the .Content of an index.*md file for the current .Language. The alt value would fall back to .Content if omitted:

alt: alt text for the image goes here
- tatkins
Image caption goes here

An archetype for creating an image bundle is provided. You should adjust it according to the languages used in your website (more on this later ). To add an image bundle, run

hugo new images/myimage -k img

and copy an image that you have in mind into just created image bundle directory (kontent/images/myimage/).

From now on, the image can be included into one or more pages by reference to its image bundle. All the attributes will follow it like ducklings follow their mother-duck, guarding you against the embarrassments of mismatching image/caption/author.

Image Bundle Directory

The directory holding image bundles (kontent/images by default) is defined by .Site.Params.image_bundle_dir configuration parameter (see config/_default/params.yaml). It must be relative to kontent, and its name should not begin with underscore, if you host your site on GitHub. By default, it is neither rendered nor listed when the site is built, which is handled by kontent/images/_index.*md files’ front matter:

draft: false
        list: never
        render: false

If this is the desired behavior, add a _index.*md file like the one above for each language that you add. If you want the captioned images to be displayed as content in their own right – for example, listing them on author’s page – remove cascading build configuration and create a normal file instead.

Nothing prevents you, of course, from copying loose images into static directory or a page bundle directory. The usual Markdown syntax will work.

Including Images in Pages

Image Representative of Page

echo 'myimage' >> kontent/section/pageBundle/main-img

This will make the image under kontent/images/myimage the ‘main’ image for the page, and mark it as ‘representative of page’ in terms of meta- and microdata. For instance, it will be the image people see when you share the page on a social network.

Images in Page Content

Use the standard Markdown syntax of ![alt](src "caption"). If src does not contain a dot, an image bundle would be looked up. Markdown texts override caption and alt from image bundle:

  • ![](myimage) without ‘extension’, the image bundle will be looked up with its caption and alt text.

  • ![custom alt](myimage "caption") same as above, but with caption and alt text overridden from Markdown.

  • ![custom alt](/img/simple.jpg "caption") with ‘extension’, the image will be looked up as static/img/simple.jpg

  • ![custom alt](simple.jpg "caption") the image will be looked up relative to the page bundle.

  • ![alt]( "caption") an external image will be displayed.

If for whatever reason your page includes only images referenced from the page content (i.e., there is no main-img file in the page bundle), you can indicate which image is the ‘main’ one in terms of meta- and microdata by including image: parameter in the front matter. The same rules for image lookup apply.

The Default Site Image for Social Networks

This is the first element in images: list in config/_default/params.yaml

Shortcodes for Clickable Tabs



{{<tabs_bq "homework" "txt" >}}

Creates a block of clickable tabs from contents of *.txt files found in homework directory within a page bundle:

├── 10_task.txt
├── 20_mysolution.txt
├── 30_solution.txt
└── 40_diff.txt

The tabs will be listed alphabetically, the first tab always being active when the page loads. The tab files can be prepended with digits and an optional underscore to define the ordering. This prefix as well as .txt suffix will be stripped when determining the tab’s identifier, so 10_task.txt will be identified as task. The localized tab name will be looked up in a i18n/*.yaml localization files. If not found, the tab name will default to its identifier.

The Markup in the contents of tab files, if any, will be interpreted. This allows to include the same tab content into each page translation without making duplicates for each site language, while still being able to use Markdown. The contents of a tab will be placed within a pair of HTML <blockquote> tags, and special styling will be applied to <del> and <strong> HTML tags to highlight corrections.

The practical use of it is including grammar exercises in a foreign language. Having tab contents in separate file makes piping from an external program (like git, wdiff, etc.) quite convenient.

For language-sensitive content, use “md” as the second argument. The default is “txt”, so it can be omitted.



{{<tabs "homework" "txt" >}}

Same as tabs_bq (see above), but tabs will be wrapped in <div> tags, and the appearance of <del> and <strong> HTML tags will be the default one.

Featuring Content on the Front Page

To expose an article in the center column of the front page, add this to the front matter of the page:

- major

To expose it in the right column instead:

- minor

The order will be determined by the usual Hugo rules. exposures is a Hugo taxonomy, so taxonomy-specific weight can be used when needed.


An archetype is like ‘cookie cutter’ for certain kind (a Hugo term) of content. They can be found under archetypes directory in the theme root and also in the root of bootstrapping project, if you are using it. They should likely be customized depending on languages that your site supports (see the Adjust Archetypes to Language Configuration section for that part).

Page Bundle

hugo new -k page blog/mypost

creates a page bundle kontent/blog/mypost:


Image Bundle

hugo new -k img images/mypicture

creates an image bundle similar to page, but with different front matter parameters. You will need to add an image file to it, of course.

Language Learning Page Bundle

hugo new -k langblog learning-indonesian/pronouns

creates a specialized page bundle for a language-learning blog:

├── homework
│   ├── 10_task.txt
│   ├── 20_mysolution.txt
│   ├── 30_solution.txt
│   └── 40_diff.txt

This will additionally create a skeleton for clickable tabs representing various stages of solving a grammar exercise. If you manage your homework using Git/GitHub, you can pipe the different commits into respective files, and a wdiff between your solution and the correct one. And then tell the world about your accomplishment in all the languages you already speak!

Multilingual Configuration

Languages that Your Site Supports

Edit the config/_default/languages.yaml file. The example configuration includes two languages, English and Russian, already pre-configured (add or delete as necessary):

    languageName: English
    weight: 10
    locale: en_US
    languageName: Русский
    weight: 20
    locale: ru_RU

The keys (en, ru in the example) should be ISO-639 language codes, as these will be used in metadata.

  • languageName: the name of a language in that language (see example for Russian)

  • weight: a integer used for ordering languages in a list. Lower weight = higher position. Use gapped numbering for easier inserts (i.e. 10, 20, 30, … as opposed to 1, 2, 3, …).

  • locale: a combination of ISO-639 language code and ISO-3166 country code joined with underscore. Currently used only in og:locale meta tag.

Add or Remove the Localizations (Translations)

The translations can be found under i18n directory in the theme root:

├── en.yaml
└── ru.yaml

The file names correspond to the YAML keys in config/_default/languages.yaml file. To add string translations for another language you are going to use, create an i18n directory under your project root, and create additional translations files for the missing languages there (not in the theme!), naming the files accordingly. So, if you happen to add Estonian, you should create i18n/ee.yaml in your project.

cp themes/errorist/i18n/en.yaml i18n/ee.yaml
# edit i18n/ee.yaml

If you are going to add localized strings in your project (author names, clickable tabs, etc.), you will need to create translation files even for the languages supported by the theme. The translations in the theme and in your project will be merged, and your translation will win, should there be any conflict.

Adjust Archetypes to Language Configuration

This is the structure of archetypes directory:

├── img
│   ├──
│   └──
├── langblog
│   ├── homework
│   │   ├── 10_task.txt
│   │   ├── 20_mysolution.txt
│   │   ├── 30_solution.txt
│   │   └── 40_diff.txt
│   ├──
│   └──
└── page

For each additional language your website uses, you will need an index.<LANG>.md file, where <LANG> is the language key from config/_default/languages.yaml file. Since the supplied files are language-independent, you just need to copy them, adjusting the file name.

Finally, if you are not going to use Russian, you should remove the corresponding files from archetypes:

find archetypes -name '' -exec rm '{}' \;

Managing Author(s)

Authors are referred to from the front matter as a list of their IDs (there could be multiple authors):

- tatkins
- mmustermann

Before referring to authors, you’ll have to configure them. If an author with a particular ID doesn’t exist, an exception will be thrown.

Add Data Entries for the Authors

Open data/authors.yaml in a text editor and add the author(s). The example file can be copied from themes/errorist/exampleSite/data/authors.yaml. If you are using the bootstrapping project, it’s already there.

The top-level key is a unique identifier for an author in ASCII alphanumeric characters starting with a letter. All keys below are, strictly speaking, optional. Omitting them, however, won’t make your site look prettier.

  • name: key should contain a fall-back name which will be displayed should there be no author’s page (kontent/authors/<ID>/ for a particular .Language, or should the .Title of such page be not defined.

  • image: can be either local (the path should be relative to <PROJECT DIR>/static) or an URL, as in example below

  • homepage: is the primary external URL of an author

  • social: is a list of objects holding external URLs related to an author, typically social network profiles. The name: will be translated or displayed as-is depending on whether translation is provided under i18n directory.

Below are a few examples using ‘default persons’ from various cultures:

    name: 'Tommy Atkins'
    name: 'Max Mustermann'
    image: /img/mmustermann.jpg
    - name: LinkedIn
    - name: Xing
    name: 'Vasya Pupkin'

Create Authors’ Pages in All Supported Languages

hugo new -k page authors/<ID>

Content Listing in the Author’s Page

If a page is written by the same author as the parent page, it will be skipped. That is, if some of your authors (or you) will write a multi-part article or a book that will occupy an entire (sub)section, only the top page of it will be listed.

Similarly, it won’t make a lot of sense specifying the same author(s) in the front matter of each single chapter. Instead, you would rather put this in the front matter of the of the said opus:

    - mmustermann

Overriding the Defaults

Do not make changes to the Errorist theme directly, because these will likely mess up the upgrading process. Instead, override them using respective directories in your project.

Dummy Partials to Override

These sit under themes/errorist/layouts/partials directory. If you have forked the bootstrapping project as recommended, these files are already included in layouts/partials. Otherwise, you will need to copy or create them yourself.

  • disqus.html if you plan to include Disqus comments. Just copy the code you’ve got from them, and the comments will be enabled on each page rendered with single.html.
  • favicons.html to include all HTML related to your site’s favicon images . To get both the images, and the HTML to include them you may choose to use a free online service, like .
  • gdpr.html for the user consent widget which lets the user to accept cookies, agree to being tracked and what not. I’m not strong in international privacy legalese, so I’m not including such code on purpose.
  • head.html to customize the <title> of your pages and for anything else you might need to include between the <head> tags.

Customizing the Appearance

Copy themes/errorist/static/css/customized.css to static/css/customized.css in your project and edit it. This will allow you to change the color of the stripe in the top of the page, the color of your site name, and whether you’d like to display it in uppercase.

You can also change how images in articles behave on mouse-over, hinting the user they can be expanded.

Choosing the Layout

You can change the layout of the pages rendered with list.html template by assigning a custom type in _index.*md file in the section root. The types supported are:

  • list-compact a more compact list, as the name suggests, still including .Description for the pages listed.
  • list-titles-only same as above, but only titles are shown. This is the default for tags.

The plan is to include alternative layouts for the site index.html pages.

Metadata and Microdata

Currently, only BreadCrumbs and Article with its derivatives (BlogPosting, NewsArticle, etc.) are supported. The type of the main content can be set in front matter with schema: parameter, the default being Article.

Canonical Meta Tag

By default it is set to the .Permalink of the page itself. Should it be something different, set canonical parameter in the front matter.

Reporting Bugs, Requesting Features, Pull Requests and Other Communication

Please use GitHub repository issues for that. I might occasionally respond to posts at Hugo support forum, but I can easily overlook your posts as well. Please keep in mind that I’m running this project in my free time.

Built with Errorist theme for Hugo site generator.